Define the GraphQL schema for a module

Each module that adds to or extends from a GraphQL schema can do so by placing a schema.graphqls file in its etc directory. Magento Core adds GraphQl modules based on the purpose of the schema being extended/added and the core modules they depend on. For example, the CustomerGraphQl module adds a query and multiple mutations to the graphql endpoint to view and modify customer data. The CustomerGraphQl module relies on the Customer core module.

A GraphQL module’s schema.graphqls file defines how the attributes defined in the module can be used in GraphQL queries and mutations. If your module’s attributes are completely self-contained, then the schema.graphqls file defines the queries, mutations, the interfaces used, the data types of all the attributes, and any enumerations that restrict the possible attribute contents. If your module extends another module, then you must define those attributes and ensure that the other module can load your attributes. For example, the CatalogGraphQl module defines the PriceAdjustmentCodesEnum, but the TaxGraphQl and WeeeGraphQl modules define the enumeration values.

The <module_name>/etc/schema.graphqls file:

  • Defines the structure of queries and mutations.
  • Determines which attributes can be used for input and output in GraphQL queries and mutations. Requests and responses contain separate lists of valid attributes.
  • Points to the resolvers that verify and process the input data and response.
  • Serves as the source for displaying the schema in a GraphQL browser.
  • Defines which objects are cached.

The base schema.graphqls file, located in the app/code/Magento/GraphQl/etc/ directory, defines the basic structure of GraphQL queries and mutations. It also includes definitions for comparison operators and paging information for search results. The webonyx/graphql-php library enforces the syntax of all schema.graphqls files.

Define queries

A query definition can be one line, or it can be complex. If your module’s query implements searchCriteria, then you must define arguments that define filters and pagination information, all of which adds complexity. However, if you expect a single result from your query, then its definition can be simple.

The following example shows the products query. The type is defined as a Query. The products definitions define the keywords that are used to construct a query, as shown in Using queries. The parameter definitions will be discussed in Specify output attributes.

type Query {
    products (
        search: String
        filter: ProductAttributeFilterInput
        pageSize: Int = 20
        currentPage: Int = 1
        sort: ProductAttributeSortInput
    ): Products @resolver(class: "Magento\\CatalogGraphQl\\Model\\Resolver\\Products")

In contrast, the customer query returns the Customer object associated with the current user. There is no need to define pagination information.

type Query {
    customer: Customer @resolver(class: "Magento\\CustomerGraphQl\\Model\\Resolver\\Customer")

If all your module’s attributes are extension attributes for existing modules, then no query definition is required. In this case, the attributes point to the other module’s query definition.

Declare input attributes

You must explicitly define each attribute that can be used as input in a GraphQL query. In the simplest cases, you can create a single type definition that includes all the input, output, and sorting attributes for an object. This might not be possible if your module performs calculations, or otherwise has attributes that aren’t available at the time of the query.

Specify output attributes

You must know the data type of each attribute, whether it is scalar or an object, and whether it can be part of an array. In addition, each attribute within an object must be defined in the same manner.

In a schema.graphqls file, the output Interface defines top-level attributes. Each object returned is defined in a type definition.

Define the output interface

In many cases, the response contains data that was either not available as input, or was transformed in some manner from the input. For example, when you specify a price in an input filter, Magento evaluates it as a Float value. However, Price output objects contain a Float value, a currency value, and possibly minimum/maximum values and tax adjustments. You can define a typeResolver to point to the Resolver object, which interprets the GraphQL query. If your module contains only attributes that extend another module, then this parameter is optional. Otherwise, it is required. See Resolvers for more information.

Output types that represent entities that can be manipulated (created, updated, or removed) and/or can be cached on the client MUST have id field. The type of the field SHOULD be ID.

Define mutations

A mutation definition contains the following information:

  • The mutation name
  • The input attributes and objects
  • The attributes and objects that can be returned in the output
  • The path to the resolver

The following mutation creates a customer.

type Mutation {
    createCustomer (input: CustomerInput!): CustomerOutput @resolver(class: "\\Magento\\CustomerGraphQl\\Model\\Resolver\\CreateCustomer") @doc(description:"Create customer account")

This mutation requires the CustomerInput object, which defines the customers name, email, password, and other attributes, as input.

Input parameters can be optional when the context is provided in a header or other mechanism.

Define enumerations

You can optionally define enumerations to help prevent input errors. Magento capitalizes all enumerated responses. If a value contains a dash (-), the system converts it to an underscore (_). This is done to maintain compliance with the GraphQL specification.


You can describe any attribute, type definition, or other entity within a schema.graphqls file by appending the following to the line:

@doc(description: "<Text>")

For example:

sku: FilterTypeInput @doc(description: "A number or code assigned to a product to identify the product, options, price, and manufacturer")
url_key: String @doc(description: "The url key assigned to the product")
product_count: Int @doc(description: "The number of products")

Use the @deprecated directive to deprecate attributes and enum values. The GraphQL specification does not permit deprecating input values or arguments. The reason keyword allows you to specify which attribute/field or enum value should be used instead.

For example:

type Query {
    cmsPage (
        id: Int @doc(description: "Id of the CMS page") @deprecated(reason: "Use `identifier`") @doc(description: "The CMS page ...")
        identifier: String @doc(description: "Identifier of the CMS page")

Query caching

The @cache directive defines whether the results of certain queries can be cached. Queries relating to products, categories, and CMS may be cached.

Define cachable queries in the following manner:

@cache(cacheIdentity: "Magento\\CmsGraphQl\\Model\\Resolver\\Block\\Identity")

The cacheIdentity value points to the class responsible for retrieving cache tags.

A query without a cacheIdentity will not be cached.

To disable caching for queries declared in another module with a cacheIdentity class, the @cache(cacheable: false) directive can be used. This cacheable argument is intended to disable caching for queries that are defined in another module.

@cache(cacheable: false)

Specifying @cache(cacheable: false) or @cache(cacheable: true) on a query without a cacheIdentity class has no effect: the query will not be cached. If a query should not be cached, do not specify the @cache directive. Specifying @cache(cacheable: false) is superfluous when no cacheIdentity is present.

See Create a cache type for information about enabling caching for custom modules.